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This paper conducts a review of the World BankOCOs financed operations and selected interventions by other institutions on household energy access in an attempt to examine success and failure factors to inform the new generation of upcomingMoreThis paper conducts a review of the World BankOCOs financed operations and selected interventions by other institutions on household energy access in an attempt to examine success and failure factors to inform the new generation of upcoming interventions. First, the report provides a brief literature review to lay out the multidimensional challenge of an overwhelming reliance on solid fuels for cooking and heating. Second, it highlights how the Bank and selected governments and organizations have been dealing with this challenge. Third, it presents lessons learned to inform upcoming interventions. And finally, it indicates an outlook on the way forward. Eight main lessons emerged from this review: (i) a holistic approach to household energy issues is necessary- (ii) public awareness campaigns are prerequisites for successful interventions- (iii) local participation is fundamental- (iv) consumer fuel subsidies are not a good way of helping the poor- (v) both market-based and public support are relevant in the commercialization of improved stoves- (vi) the needs and preferences of stoves users should be given priority- (vii) durability of improved stoves is important for their successful dissemination- and (viii) with microfinance the poor can gradually afford an improved stove. The paper invites stakeholders to use the recent momentum aimed at providing clean cookstoves and fuels to the poor as an opportunity for action.